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A small percentage of women diagnosed with cervical dysplasia will go on to develop cervical cancer, which is one of the most preventable cancers. In this protocol you will learn about factors that increase risk of cervical dysplasia and how cervical dysplasia is classified. The benefits and risks of currently available treatments will also be reviewed, and evidence concerning integrative interventions such as B vitamins and diindolylmethane DIMwhich have been studied in the context of cervical dysplasia, will be presented.
Women who opt for watchful waiting after a diagnosis of low-grade cervical dysplasia should adopt the healthy lifestyle choices and risk reduction measures presented in this protocol.
If the condition persists or worsens, active treatment can be instituted.
Human papillomavirus or HPV
Cervical dysplasia is the abnormal growth of the cells that line the surface of the cervix. It is usually caused by the human papillomavirus HPV. Integrative interventions like folate and green tea extract can help reduce the risk of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer.
Papillomavirus virus model
Vitamin E: Alpha-tocopherol levels were found to be lower in women with cervical abnormalities or cancer, and supplementation with vitamin E promoted reversal of cervical dysplasia in a randomized controlled trial.
Green Tea Extract: Women with cervical dysplasia who supplemented with green tea extract had nearly a 7 times higher response rate papillomavirus virus model women receiving no treatment.
The cervix is the lower part of the uterus womb and inverted papilloma situated at the upper end of the vagina ACOG Dysplastic cells can vary in their degree of abnormality from mild papillomavirus virus model severe, and dysplasia has several possible outcomes: it may disappear entirely, remain stable over time, or progress to cancer Ho ; ACOG a; Moore However, only a small percentage of women diagnosed with dysplasia will go on to develop cervical cancer, which is one of the most preventable cancers ACOG a; ACOG a.
Cervical cancer used to be a common cause of death papillomavirus virus model cancer among American women. This screening test can detect changes in the cervix before cancer develops or while cancer is still in its early stages, when treatment is generally most effective ACS a.
Most cases of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer are associated with human papillomavirus HPV infectionwhich infects nearly all sexually active men and women at some point in their lives CDC However, at present, many women and girls are not vaccinated, possibly as a result of papillomavirus virus model about the vaccines or a lack of awareness because these vaccines are relatively new Fiks ; Delere ; Etter Papillomavirus virus model intake of several vitamins may increase risk of cervical cancer.
Studies have shown that women with lower intakes of vitamins A, C, and E are at increased risk of cervical cancer Kim ; Papillomavirus virus model Also, women with low concentrations of B vitamins, especially folate, may have an increased risk of cervical dysplasia or cervical cancer Butterworth ; Piyathilake ; Liu ; Butterworth ; Butterworth, Hatch ; Kwasniewska ; VanEenwyk ; Kwanbunjan The benefits and risks of currently available treatments will also be reviewed, and evidence on integrative interventions such as B vitamins and diindolylmethane DIMwhich have been studied in the context of cervical dysplasia, will be presented.
Novel and emerging therapies including new types of HPV vaccines will be discussed as well. There are numerous strains of HPV. Cervical cancer rarely develops in women younger than age 20; most papillomavirus virus model occur in midlife and in women under age Most cases in women over 65 occur papillomavirus virus model those who did not undergo regular screening with Pap tests before age 65 ACS a.
Cervical cancer usually develops over a period of several years ACOG During this time, the cells on or around the cervix become abnormal. The cellular abnormalities antihelmintice eficiente occur before cancer is present are usually called cervical intraepithelial neoplasia CIN. Cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer are classified along a spectrum of increasing cervical cell abnormality.
Implicarea genomului papiloma virusului uman hpv în oncogeneza cancerului cervical The papillomavirus life cycle - vacante-insorite.
The goal of classification is to determine the papillomavirus virus model to which the cervical cells have become abnormal, and whether treatment is needed, since lower degrees of dysplasia may resolve on their own without treatment. Risk factors interact and may be additive, so it is usually difficult to say that a given factor is responsible for any one case of cervical dysplasia or cancer La Vecchia ; Arnheim Dahlstrom ; ACS b.
Each virus in the group is given a number, which is called an HPV type or strain Kumar Eight other high-risk HPV strains types 31, 33, 35, 45, 51, 52, 56, and 58 are associated with the great majority of other cases of cervical papillomavirus virus model Wheeler ; de Sanjose Prevalence of HPV infection increases from age 14 to 24 but then gradually declines through age 59 Dunne Young women, especially those 21 or younger, usually clear the infection by means of their immune response in an average of eight months Papillomavirus virus model a.
Most associated cervical abnormalities will also spontaneously resolve among these women Moore ; Fuchs Other Risk Factors Immunosuppression. Women receiving immunosuppressive therapy for autoimmune disease or cancer, or because of an organ transplant, are at increased risk of cervical dysplasia progressing to cervical cancer Dugué ; ACOG Smoking increases the risk of many cancers, including cervical cancer Silva Diethylstilbestrol exposure.
Daughters of women who took the synthetic hormone diethylstilbestrol DES during pregnancy are at increased risk for dysplasia and cervical cancer NCI a. DES has not been prescribed to pregnant women in the United States since ; thus, most DES-exposed women are currently beyond their childbearing years Casey In the United States, women of different ethnicities have different degrees of risk of cervical cancer.
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Pregnancy-related risk factors. For reasons not fully understood, three or more full-term pregnancies seem to increase the risk of developing cervical cancer.
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Additionally, women whose first full-term pregnancy occurred before age 17 are nearly twice as papillomavirus virus model to develop papillomavirus virus model cancer later in life compared with women whose first pregnancy occurred at age 25 or older ACS b; Weppner Oral contraceptives birth control pills. Taking oral contraceptives for prolonged periods of time appears to increase the risk of cervical cancer. One study reported that cervical cancer risk doubled in women on birth control pills for more than five years, but found the risk returned to normal 10 years after they were discontinued ACS b.
Sexual history. One study found that condom use significantly promotes regression of cervical dysplasia, even of CIN II or higher Hogewoning Body weight. Also, overweight and obese women are at greater risk of dying from cervical cancer Wee Family history of cervical cancer.
Women whose mother or sister had cervical cancer are at two to three times the risk of developing the disease themselves ACS b.